OLD STANDARDS

 

Editors of collections of fiddle tunes tend to exclude tunes which are considered "common" or at least have appeared in print before. The problem with this exclusion is that it tends to create the impression that the traditional repertoire of a given place consists of particular obscure tunes. I have already mentioned elsewhere that I am excluding from this site dance tunes that I heard Michigan fiddlers play which are less than a hundred years old or so. Thus, in order to attempt a better representation of old-time tunes for this collection, I am including in this page recordings of tunes that have enjoyed a long history in print.

This does not mean, however, that the fiddlers here learned the tunes from print sources. On the contrary, most probably learned the tunes by ear. Nevertheless, the fact that this group of tunes is largely the only such group of old-time tunes that Michigan fiddlers knew by name suggests that published sources over many years reinforced the titles.

Although I have not attempt to trace the histories of each tune, I list them approximately in chronological order according to their earliest appearance in print. The oldest tunes date from the mid-18th century or possibly earlier. The reasons for the persistence of these tunes varies. Some were popular as fife tunes and thus were heard frequently by soldiers or at militia musters and Fourth of July celebrations. Others (for example, Fisher's Hornpipe, Money Musk) were used by dancing masters as music for particular country dances (as contradances were once called). When cotillions (later called quadrilles or square dances) grew in popularity from about 1820 to 1850, fiddlers adapted these older tunes as tunes for the new dances. In America, printed sources were probably hard to come by until Elias Howe began publishing books of dance tunes in the 1840s. Other publishers, like William Hall, of New York, and Oliver Ditson, of Boston, followed suit. Sears & Roebuck sold countless violin kits that included Elias Howe's Violin without a Master.

 

1. Irish Washerwoman played by Bill Bigford, accompanied by Albert Hoppes, guitar, Portland, Michigan, about 1968.

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2. Flowers of Edinburgh played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, electronic organ, Manton, Michigan, April 15, 1976.

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3. Haste to the Wedding. In my experience, Michigan fiddlers universally play this.

a. Waves of Lake Erie played by Orin Miller, violin, with Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Scottville, Michigan, September 8, 1977.

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b. played by Dan Naganashe, accompanied by Daniel Johnston, tenor banjo, and Paul Gifford, guitar, Harbor Springs, Michigan, October 29, 1977.

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c. played by Lewie Gage, violin, accompanied by unknown, tenor banjo, unknown, piano accordion, and unknown, drums, with Gene Ward, caller, at dance in Fenton, Michigan, September 14, 1974, recorded by Jon Blasius. This was the second change of a set of square dances; the caller requested it. Most square dances this night were singing calls, such as Climbing Up the Golden Stairs and Hurry, Hurry, Hurry. They also played Irish Washerwoman as a first change for another set.

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4. Rakes of Mallow

a. Medley of Tunes played by unknown fiddler, accompanied by unknown, five-string banjo, and unknown, guitar, Sheridan, Michigan, area, about 1941. This was an acetate recording that Ken Staines had which I copied in 1976. The tunes (I am supplying titles) are Rakes of Mallow, Miss McLeod's Reel, and Pigtown Fling. I think these musicians were all elderly, and it is notable as a recording of Northern five-string banjo playing.

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b. played by Russell Nelson, accompanied by Paul Gifford, guitar, and William White, second fiddle, Lansing, Michigan, January 7, 1978.

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5. Soldier’s Joy

a. played by Bud Sebastian at dance, accompanied by Larry Franklin, tenor banjo, Dick Dillingham, piano, Paul Gifford, dulcimer, at Onondaga, Michigan, March 1977.

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b. Soldier's Joy; Fisher's Hornpipe (medley) played by Chet Parker, violin, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, and Jon Blasius, guitar, Edgerton, Michigan, August 8, 1971.

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6. Campbells are Coming, played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Manton, Michigan, April 15, 1976. Bill Bigford, I think, sang a ditty to this tune:

I'm going to get married, Mama, Mama, / I'm going to get married, Mama, Mama, / I'm going to get married but don't you tell Pa / 'Cause he wouldn't like it, say, would he, Mama?

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7. [New Rigged Ship]. Old Lady in the Haymow played by Walter Taylor, accompanied by Glen Martin, guitar, and others, at a jamboree in Romeo, Michigan, April 23, 1977. For his words to this, click here. This tune, probably because it was a favorite fife tune, was found all over the country, under many names, sometimes in duple time: Green Willis, Chapel Hill Serenade, Two-Step Quadrille, Over the River to Charlie, etc.

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8. [Fairy Dance]. Jim Kimball said that fiddlers in western New York frequently played this for the Virginia Reel, but in Michigan, I only encountered this connection in the far northern part of the Lower Peninsula (Cease and Keller) and in the eastern Upper Peninsula (Cameron and House). Evidently Patrick Bonner, of Beaver Island, also played it.

a. Virginia Reel played by Bud Cease, accompanied by Daniel Johnston, tenor banjo, and Paul Gifford, guitar, Harbor Springs, Michigan, September 7, 1977.

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b. Virginia Reel played by Pete Keller, accompanied by Paul Gifford, piano, Cross Village, Michigan, September 7, 1976.

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9. Rickett’s Hornpipe played by Russell Nelson, accompanied by Paul Gifford, guitar, Lansing, Michigan, January 7, 1978.

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10. Gilderoy. This tune in Michigan was generally known by the name of the dance call associated with it, Do-Si Balinet, a distinctive call generally used for a second change, and was widely known. The association of this tune with this call was true in the Catskill Mountain region of New York State, as indicated by Norman Cazden (Dances from Woodland, 32), although Jim Kimball reports an association in western New York with My Love Is But a Lassie Yet. Callers like Guy Lincoln and Bernie Livingston called it at some of the jamborees, and the dancers seemed to know it, but Guy thought it was a hard one to get dancers to be successful at doing it.

a. Do-Si Balinet played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Manton, Michigan, April 15, 1976.

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b. Do-Si Balinet played by Wallace Tuttle, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, and William White, guitar, Lansing, Michigan, February 1, 1977.

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11. Money Musk is the most frequently mentioned tune in older literature that describes fiddling and dancing in Michigan. It was originally a Scottish tune that accompanied a country dance (contradance) that probably originated in England in the late 18th century but rapidly was introduced to America. The contradance was still danced in Michigan in the early 20th century, but by 1920 had become an "old-time" dance. By 1970 it was all but forgotten.

a. Money Musk played by Varsel Fales, accompanied by William White, piano, and Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Hastings, Michigan, June 14, 1981.

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b. Money Musk played by Wilbert (Bill) Walker, accompanied by Phil Miller, piano, and Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Kinde, Michigan, April 29, 1978.

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c. Money Musk played by Pete Keller, accompanied by Paul Gifford, piano, Cross Village, Michigan, September 7, 1976. This version, which sounds like another tune, may actually ultimately derive from the printed version, although much changed through oral transmission. He learned this from local Indian fiddler Leander Petoskey.

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12. Opera Reel was, with Money Musk, one of the two most popular country dances in Michigan during the 19th century. In some places it continued to be danced in the 1920s.

a. Opera Reel played by Frank Mattison, with Harley Sinclair, dulcimer, Ken Staines, tenor banjo, Cloise Sinclair, bones, Bob Fleck, guitar, Paul Gifford, melodica, Sheridan, Michigan, February 22, 1976.

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b. Opera Reel played by Chet Parker, violin, Edgerton, Michigan, August 8, 1971. While Mattison's version is the standard written version, Parker's varies from it.

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c. Opera Reel played by Frank Stevens, violin, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, and Jon Blasius, guitar, Sand Lake, Michigan, October 1971. He had almost forgotten the tune and was trying to remember it. Perhaps this was one of the tunes he played with Chet Parker when they played for granary dances in the area around 1910.

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13. [Muckin’ o’ Geordie’s Byre /O Lassie, Art Thou Sleeping Yet?] played by Elmer House, violin, Mackinac Island, August 1975. Gale McAfee called it "Go Along, You Drunken Devil," if I recall correctly.

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14. McDonald’s Reel/Leather Breeches. This Scottish tune was known by both names in Michigan, the first probably in association with a country dance of the same name, the second as a tune. All the fiddlers I met who played it called it by the latter name.

a. McDonald's Reel; Fisher's Hornpipe; Do-Si Balinet played by Jim Filion, accompanied by guitar, Filion, Michigan, 1941. Recorded by Wilbert Walker.

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b. Leather Breeches, played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Manton, Michigan, April 15, 1976.

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15. Devil’s Dream played by Jasper Bisbee, accompanied by Beulah Bisbee Schuler, East Orange, New Jersey, November 24, 1923. Edison

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16. On the Road to Boston played by Fordney Cushman, accompanied by William White, dulcimer, and Paul Gifford, piano, Okemos, Michigan, June 1982. A fife tune, another name for it (probably deriving from a song that soldiers made up as they marched to it), was One More Corpse for the Undertaker. I think Elton Cole, of Cross Village, told me that. Stewart Carmichael preferred this tune to accompany the call "Right and Left Six" (for which Les Raber and Chet Parker, from Allegan and Kent Counties, associated a different tune).

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17. Fisher’s Hornpipe played by Wilbert (Bill) Walker, accompanied by Phil Miller, piano, and Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Kinde, Michigan, April 29, 1978.

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18. Durang’s Hornpipe played by Varsal Fales, accompanied by William White, guitar, Bud Pierce, dulcimer, Hastings, Michigan, June 14, 1981.

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19. Sailor's Hornpipe, played by Gale McAfee, accomanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Manton, Michigan, April 15, 1976.

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20. [Off She Goes]. French Four played by Pete Keller, accompanied by Paul Gifford, piano, Cross Village, Michigan, September 7, 1976. Keller's name for the tune, "French Four," was the name of a popular dance, the American form of the contredanse francaise, which was a dance for two couples. Taught by dancing masters in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it remained popular in rural areas of the Midwest until after the Civil War.

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21. Girl I Left Behind Me played by Orin Miller, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Scottville, Michigan, September 8, 1977.

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22. Speed the Plow

a. played by Gale McAfee, violin, with Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Manton, Michigan, April 15, 1976.

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b. played by Chet Parker, violin, Edgerton, Michigan, August 8, 1971.

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23. Miss McLeod’s Reel. This Scottish tune, known throughout the country under different names, was popular in Michigan from pioneer days. No fiddler was available to play for the first ball in Groveland Township, in northern Oakland County, in 1834, so people in the crowd whistled this tune and one other for all the dances.

a. McLeod's Reel played by Wilbur Brown, accompanied by Daniel Johnston, tenor banjo, and Paul Gifford, piano, Harbor Springs, Michigan, September 6, 1977.

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b. Sally's Hornpipe played by Stewart Carmichael, accompanied by unknown tenor banjo and piano, at a jamboree in Alma, Michigan, February 19, 1977. Stewart had a system to announce the key of a piece that was different from any other fiddler I ever encountered. He would annnounce a number, indicating the number of sharps. Thus "G' would be "one," "D" would be "two," etc.

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c. Pea Straw played by Jim Filion, accompanied by Hawaiian guitar, Filion, Michigan, 1941. Recorded by Wilbert (Bill) Walker. Perhaps Filion's name for this tune was derived from the tune accompanying the old contradance of the same name. This dance was still remembered in Michigan in the 1920s. In response to a 1925 letter to Henry Ford from Bruce Wight, of Batavia, New York, who mentioned that he had a tune "'Peastraw' which was the original tune played for the contra dance now called 'Crooked S,' Ford's assistant Harold Cordell responded that that Jep Bisbee, who had been in recently, told him that "he knows the Peastraw well and went through the steps, which resemble a double ended 'S'." (Acc. 285, Box 581, The Henry Ford)

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24. Garry Owen played by Varsal Fales, accompanied by William White, piano, and Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Hastings, Michigan, June 15, 1981. It seems that e verybody knows (or claims) that this was the "theme song" of George Armstrong Custer's 7th U.S. Cavalry. In any case, its popularity undoubtedly derives from its use in fife-and-drum bands.

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BOOK TUNES (ca.1840s-1880s)

 

This group is a catch-all for tunes that seem not to have been published before about 1840. Elias Howe, of Massachusetts, began publishing books of tunes that were republished in many forms throughout the 19th century. In addition, new tunes, like "Arkansas Traveler," became widely popular through other means, and some, like "Tempest," were newly introduced dances.

25. Miller’s Reel played by Frank Mattison, with Harley Sinclair, dulcimer, Ken Staines, tenor banjo, Paul Giffod, dulcimer, unknown, bass, Sheridan, Michigan, February 22, 1976.

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26. [Constitution Hornpipe] played by Merritt Olsen, accompanied by Paul Gifford, piano, Birmingham, Michigan, April 1976. Merritt learned this tune, which he plays in D rather than the usual F major in which the tune appears in published collections, from Charlie Jones, originally from around Hesperia, Michigan, who played for firemen's dances in Birmingham, accompanied by his wife Rena on piano. Merritt called this "Charlie Jones' third change."

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27. Whitefish on the Rapids played by Bill Cameron, accompanied by Paul Gifford, piano, Brimley, Michigan, July 8, 1976. This tune, once well known around Sault Ste. Marie, was said to be composed by Henry Thorne (1841-1928), a part-Indian native of Mackinac Island, Civil War veteran, and tugboat captain, who played for Henry Ford at the end of his life. It is very close to Good for the Tongue, one of Howe's "book" tunes.

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28. Turkey in the Straw played by Russell Nelson, accompanied by Paul Gifford, second violin, and William White, guitar, Lansing, Michigan, January 7, 1978. This tune, of course, is probably the best-known of all of these. The key varies; Russell plays it in G, but some, like Stewart Carmichael or Bill Cameron, preferred it in B flat.

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29. [Tempest] played by Walter Taylor, accompanied by Glen Martin, guitar, and others, at a jamboree at Romeo, Michigan, April 23, 1977. This tune accompanied a popular circle dance popular in the mid-19th century.

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30. Arkansas Traveler played by Frank Mattison, accompanied by Harley Sinclair, dulcimer, Ken Staines, tenor banjo, Bob Fleck, guitar, Paul Gifford, melodica, Cloise Sinclair, bones, Sheridan, Michigan, February 22, 1976.

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31. Rory O’More played by Helen Gross, accompanied by Paul Gifford, piano, Saline, Michigan, April 25, 1978. I never heard another who played this one, although Bill Bigford sang a couple of ditties with Rory O'More as a leading character.

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32. [Steamboat Quickstep] played by Dan Naganashe, accompanied by Daniel Johnston, tenor banjo, and Paul Gifford, guitar, Harbor Springs, Michigan, October 29, 1977. This also appears in books, but I never heard another Michigan fiddler play this one.

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33. [Drunken Sailor, or Monkey’s Wedding]. This tune, under the first name, was recorded in the 1920s by John Baltzell, of Ohio, as well as in a medley by Henry Ford's Old-Time Orchestra, and it appears in Gary Harrison's Dear Old Illinois as Arkansas. The two versions here did not inherit the same title. The song "Ten Little Indians" uses the first part of this tune.

a. Nameless tune played by Pete Keller, accompanied by Paul Gifford, piano, Cross Village, Michigan, September 7, 1976.

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b. Six Hand Reel played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, guitar, Manton, Michigan, May 1976. Gale's title indicates that he learned it from someone along the train of transmission who associated the tune with the six-handed reel (a reel for six couples). In this regard it is interesting that Grace Ryan, in her book Dances of Our Pioneers (1926), uses the tune for a four-handed reel.

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34. [Beaux of Oak Hill] played by Elmer House, accompanied by Paul Gifford, guitar, Mackinac Island, Michigan, August 1975. House was the only fiddler I knew to play this tune. Bill Bigford used to say that his father played this tune and "Money Musk," and others like it, but when he was starting to play, the style was different.

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35. Liverpool Hornpipe

a. played by Wilbert (Bill) Walker, accompanied by Phil Miller, piano, and Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Kinde, Michigan, April 29, 1978.

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Jasper Warner at Barnard Grange Hall

Jasper Warner, tenor banjo, with Delores Cain, piano, Clair Stevens, fiddle, Bob Spinner, dulcimer, Bill Stevens, guitar, playing for dance at Barnard Grange Hall, near Charlevoix, Michigan, about 1980.

b. Big Rock Getaway played by Jasper Warner, tenor banjo, accompanied by Delores Cain, piano, Bill Stevens, guitar, Bob Spinner, dulcimer, and others, at dance at Barnard Grange Hall, near Charlevoix, Michigan, October 29, 1977. Jasper was unusual in playing the lead on fast tunes on the banjo, which he regularly did at Grange dances. He learned most of them from his fiddler mother, Emma (Brown) Warner, aunt of Wilbur Brown and niece of John Brown, who made dulcimers at Torch Lake and who made the one (heard here) that went to the grave with Bob. This tune is certainly a hybrid of Liverpool Hornpipe and another tune.

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36. London Hornpipe played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, guitar, Manton, Michigan, May 1976.

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37. [Lanigan’s Ball] Flanagan's Ball played by Gale McAfee, violin, with Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Manton, Michigan, May 1976.

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38. [Temperance Reel] played by Bill Cameron, accompanied by Paul Gifford, piano, Brimley, Michigan, July 8, 1976.

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39. [Green Fields of America] played by Elmer House, accompanied by Paul Gifford, guitar, Mackinac Island, Michigan, August 1975. Although this tune appeared in these 19th-century publications, I suspect, because of the amount of immigration into Ontario from northern Ireland in the 19th century, that House's tune represents more purely oral tradition.

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40. Ostinelli’s Reel played by Frank Mattison, accompanied by Harley Sinclair, dulcimer, Ken Staines, tenor banjo, Cloise Sinclair, bones, Bob Fleck, guitar, Paul Gifford, melodica, Sheridan, Michigan, February 22, 1976. George Pariseau called this Little Reel.

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41. [Lord Moira] played by Bill Cameron, accompanied by Arthur LeBlanc, piano, Brimley, Michigan, September 3, 1977. This tune seems to have been common in the region once, certainly around the Soo and more broadly in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and northern Wisconsin, and it probably represents part of the old Ontario repertoire. Leizime Brusoe's rendition of it, under the title Highland Fling, appears on Alan Jabbour's Library of Congress fiddle LP. Elmer House (who shared many tunes in common with Cameron, though he did not know him) said the words were "My aunt Sally's good enough for anybody, / My aunt Sally's good enough for me." Luke LaFrenier called it My Wife's Good Enough for Anybody. Andrew Park, Jr. (1827-1908), a native of Dalhousie, Ontario, who lived from 1849 to 1881 in Perth County, Ontario, near Lake Huron, before moving to North Dakota, played a tune called My Sallie's Nice Enough for Any Man. J. Leeder recalled his parents, in Kearney, Ontario, dancing the "schottisse" to it, which he called My Aunt Sally Ann, with similar lyrics to those that Elmer House and his wife knew (see Canadian Folk Music Bulletin 34.1/2 [2000]: 21). This tune is similar to Old Aunt Katie in Samuel Bayard's Dance to the Fiddle (no. 284).

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42. Polly Put the Kettle On. This tune was widespread in the South, with varying first names (Jennie, Molly, and others). In Michigan I only encountered it with Bill Cameron and Elmer House. Harvey St. Pierre (1908-1978), of Paincourt, Ontario, played a nameless version of it, so I suspect that we might regard it as more typical of an old Ontario repertoire.

a. played by Bill Cameron, accompanied by Paul Gifford, piano, Brimley, Michigan, July 8, 1976.

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b. played by Elmer House, Mackinac Island, Michigan, August 1975.

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43. Hand Organ Hornpipe played by George Pariseau, accompanied by Mina Pariseau Hurdell, piano, Bad Axe, Michigan, 1941.

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44. Wilson’s Clog

a. played by Gale McAfee, violin, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Manton, Michigan, April 15, 1976.

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b. played by Stewart Carmichael, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, and Jon Blasius, guitar, Evart, Michigan, October 1971.

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45. Lamplighter’s Honrpipe played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Manton, Michigan, May, 1976.

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46. [Champion Jig]. This seems to have been fairly popular in this region of the country. John Baltzell recorded it (Paddy Ryan's Favorite Irish Jig); the Van Arsdales played one of their grandfather's tunes, a nameless one in G and C that was a version of this.

a. played by Bill Cameron, accompanied by Paul Gifford, piano, Brimley, Michigan, July 8, 1976.

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b. in F and D minor played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, electronic organ, Manton, Michigan, May 1976.

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47. [Kelton's Reel]. This is another of those tunes with a variety of names. Of Michigan players, I can think of Buffalo Breakdown (Chet Parker); Dog Shit a Rye Straw (Bill Bigford); Buck and Wing (Jasper Warner); and certainly others.

a. Stony Point played by Varsal Fales, accompanied by William White, guitar, and Bud Pierce, dulcimer, Hastings, Michigan, June 14, 1981.

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b. High Step played by Gus Polk, accompanied by unknown, piano accordion, at jamboree, Port Hope, Michigan, April 30, 1977.

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c. Jig in G played by Helen Gross, accompanied by Paul Gifford, piano, Saline, Michigan, April 25, 1978.

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48. Wake Up Susan

a. Wake Up Susan; Speed the Plow; Money Musk; Devil's Dream (medley) played by Frank Mattison, accompanied by Harley Sinclair and Paul Gifford, dulcimers, Ken Staines, tenor banjo, Cloise Sinclair, bones, unknown, bass, Sheridan, Michigan, February 22, 1976.

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b. Two versions of this tune played by Merritt Olsen, accompanied by Paul Gifford, piano, Birmingham, Michigan, April 1976.

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49. My Love She’s But a Lassie Yet. This is universally known and is another one with a wide variety of names, including Eedle Den Doo (Stewart Carmichael, who said it was an song about an old Finnish whore); King's Head (Merritt Olsen); Love Somebody (Bill Walker); Down in the Garden (Charlie Taylor); and more.

a. Caledonian Quadrille played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Manton, Michigan, April 15, 1976. Varsal Fales also called this tune by the same name, which appears in Elias Howe's Violin without a Master. The Caledonian Quadrille was one of several "fancy" quadrilles that appeared on the scene in the mid-19th century, and it is possilble that this tune was popularized via this dance.

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b. Soapsuds over the Back Fence played by Bud Sebastian, accompanied by Larry Franklin, tenor banjo, and Dick Dillingham, piano, at a dance at Onondaga, Michigan, March 1977. In the South and elsewhere this title is associated with other tunes.

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c. Cross-Eyed Butcher played by Jasper Warner, tenor banjo, accompanied by Delores Cain, piano, Bill Stevens, guitar, Bob Spinner, dulcimer, and others, at dance at Barnard Grange Hall, near Charlevoix, Michigan, October 29, 1977.

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50. Irishman’s Heart to the Ladies

a. played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Manton, Michigan, April 15, 1976.

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b. played by Wilbert (Bill) Walker, accompanied by Phil Miller, piano, and Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Kinde, Michigan, April 29, 1978.

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51. Smash the Windows played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, Manton, Michigan, April 15, 1976.

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52. High Level Hornpipe played by Chet Parker, violin, Edgerton, Michigan, August 8, 1971.

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TUNES FROM THE MINSTREL SHOW ERA


53. Old Dan Tucker played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, guitar, Manton, Michigan, May 1976.

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54. Buffalo Girls played by Gale McAfee, accompanied by Paul Gifford, guitar, Manton, Michigan, May 1976.

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55. Little Brown Jug played by Stewart Carmichael, accompanied by Paul Gifford, dulcimer, and Jon Blasius, guitar, Evart, Michigan, October 1971.

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56. Kingdom Coming played by Jerry Henderson, accompanied by Paul Jones, piano, Art Weiss, drums, and Sam Clark, caller, Livonia, Michigan, early 1950s. The call is "Duck with the Oyster." Michigan Square Dance Record and Recording Company, 36728 W. Seven Mile Rd., Livonia, Michigan, J-2-A. The musicians here were all members of American Federation of Musicians, Local 5, but I know nothing of them.

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57. Golden Slippers played by Stewart Carmichael, accompanied by Ken Staines, tenor banjo, unknown, piano, and Bill Webster, dulcimer, at jamboree, Alma, Michigan, February 19, 1977.

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VIRGINIA REELS

 

This category includes tunes that migrated northward without the aid of published music which are relatively well known.

58. Tennessee Wagoner

a. played by Fred Elton, accompanied by Stewart Carmichael, dulcimer, and Lulu Carmichael, piano, at jamboree in Elk Rapids, Michigan, October 16, 1976.

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b. Wagoner's Breakdown played by Wilbert (Bill) Walker, accompanied by Phil Miller, piano, and Paul Gifford, Kinde, Michigan, April 29, 1978.

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59. Mississippi Sawyer played by Varsal Fales, accompanied by William White, guitar, and Bud Pierce, dulcimer, Hastings, Michigan, June 14, 1981. This tune was fairly widely known.

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